Consequences of bullying on university students in Bangladesh
More details
Hide details
Professor, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Bangladesh-5200, Ph.D. student, School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.
Independent Researcher, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Bangladesh-5200
Professor, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Bangladesh-5200
Ph.D., Professor, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Bangladesh-5200
Online publication date: 2021-09-10
Management 2021;25(1):186–208
Bullying at university is a pervasive phenomenon that has negative outcomes on the psychological and actual wellbeing of students, their success and achievement. The examination expected to research the consequences of bullying on university level students. A self-administrated survey was planned by the exploration goals and theories. The sample size consists of 380 students randomly selected from different faculties of a public university in Bangladesh. The questionnaire was coded and analyzed using SPSS-AMOS-24 and descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used for data analysis. The results of the study indicated that bullying exists at the university and affects student’s academic achievement and success, either by victims or the bullies. The bullied students resolved unpleasant situations using active or passive responses. This study discovers the causes and consequences of students bullying and gives suggestions to the students, university administration and parents of students on how to solve this problem. The study also helps prevent bullying by educating student about their rights, providing students with confidential way to report bullying, encouraging bystanders by to take immediate actions, such as speaking up and reporting the incident and emphasizing the importance of family involvement. This study has recommended that teachers and the university administration need to take different measures to reduce bullying. Teachers may coordinate with and talk to the bully’s students. Teachers, university administration, and NGOs can seta few projects for menaces to alleviate the university bullying. Moreover, the government should take legal action to prevent bullying. Therefore, the desirable application of the results of this research reality makesa valuable contribution to development at the national level.
Alam, R. A. (2017). Exploring effects of teacher bullying on secondary English language learning in Dhaka (Doctoral dissertation, BRAC Univeristy).
Al-Raqqad, H. K., Al-Bourini, E. S., Al Talahin, F. M., & Aranki, R. M. E. (2017). The Impact of School Bullying on Students’ Academic Achievement from Teachers Point of View. International Education Studies, 10(6), 44-50.
Ammermueller, A. (2012). Violence in European schools:A widespread phenomenon that matters for educational production. Labour Economics, 19(6), 908-922.
Analitis, F., Velderman, M. K., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Detmar, S., Erhart, M., Herdman, M., & Rajmil, L. (2009). Being bullied: associated factors in children and adolescents 8 to 18 years old in 11 European countries. Pediatrics, 123(2), 569-577.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2007). Amos 16.0 [computer software]. Chicago, IL: Smallwaters.
Brank, E. M., Hoetger, L. A., & Hazen, K. P. (2012). Bullying. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 8, 213-230.
Carter, M. A. (2013). Protecting oneself from cyber bullying on social media sites–a study of undergraduate students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1229-1235.
Coelho, V. A., & Romao, A. M. (2018). The relation between social anxiety, social withdrawal and (cyber) bullying roles:A multilevel analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 86, 218-226.
Coleyshaw, L. (2010). The power of paradigms:A discussion of the absence of bullying research in the context of the university student experience. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 15(4), 377-386.
Craig, W., Boniel-Nissim, M., King, N., Walsh, S. D., Boer, M., Donnelly, P. D., ... & Van den Eijnden, R. (2020). Social media use and cyber-bullying:a cross-national analysis of young people in 42 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(6), S100-S108.
Doğruer, N. (2015). Bullying Scale Development for Higher Education Students: North Cyprus Case (Doctoral dissertation, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)-Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ)).
Einarsen, S., & Raknes, B. I. (1997). Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Violence and victims, 12(3), 247-263.
Einarsen, S., & Skogstad, A. (1996). Bullying at work: Epidemiological findings in public and private organizations. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 5(2), 185-201.
Fareo, D. O. (2015). Bullying in Nigerian secondary schools: strategies for counseling intervention. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(4), 435.
Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I., Fredriks, A. M., Vogels, T., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2006). Do bullied children get ill, or do ill children get bullied?A prospective cohort study on the relationship between bullying and health-related symptoms. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1568-1574.
Finnish School Health Inquiry, (2010). School Health Conference, 24–25 August 2010, Tampere.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2001). SPSS for Windows step by step:A simple guide and reference. Boston: Allyn.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207-219). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.
Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. L. (2000). Destructive Conflict & Bullying at Work. Manchester: Manchester School of Management, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology.
Honjo, M., Hasegawa, T., Hasegawa, T., Mishima, K., Suda, T., & Yoshida, T. (2011, October).A framework to identify relationships among students in school bullying using digital communication media. In 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on Social Computing (pp. 1474-1479). IEEE.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling:a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Japan, (2009) Education Office, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, “Prevention of Cyberbullying Issues and Response Mannual,”.
Jiang, X., & Peterson, R. D. (2012). Beyond participation: The association between school extracurricular activities and involvement in violence across generations of immigration. Journal of youth and adolescence, 41(3), 362-378.
Jimerson, S. R., Swearer, S. M., & Espelage, D. L. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective. Routledge.
Keashly, L., & Neuman, J. H. (2010). Faculty experiences with bullying in higher education: Causes, consequences, and management. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 32(1), 48-70.
Kibriya, S., Xu, Z. P., & Zhang, Y. (2015). The impact of bullying on educational performance in Ghana:A bias-reducing matching approach (No. 330-2016-13478).
Kosciw, J. G., Palmer, N. A., Kull, R. M., & Greytak, E. A. (2013). The effect of negative school climate on academic outcomes for LGBT youth and the role of in-school supports. Journal of School Violence, 12(1), 45-63.
Le, A. T., Miller, P. W., Heath, A. C., & Martin, N. (2005). Early childhood behaviours, schooling and labour market outcomes: Estimates froma sample of twins. Economics of Education Review, 24(1), 1-17.
Lester, J. (2013). Bullying in higher education: What current research, theorizing, and practice tell us. In Workplace bullying in higher education (pp. 15-36). Routledge.
Maeng, J. L., Malone, M., & Cornell, D. (2020). Student threats of violence against teachers: Prevalence and outcomes usinga threat assessment approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 87, 102934.
Mahmood, S. (2018). Nature and consequences of bullying at high schools in Dhaka city (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dhaka).
Meijer, R. R., de Vries, R. M., & van Bruggen, V. (2011). An evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 using item response theory: Which items are most strongly related to psychological distress?. Psychological assessment, 23(1), 193.
Murillo, J., & Román, M. (2011). Latin America: school bullying and academic achievement. CEPAL Review.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from
Olweus, D. (1993). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: Long-term consequences and an effective intervention program.
Olweus, D. (1999). Bullying at school: basic facts and an effective intervention programme. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Disciplines 1994; 35:1171–1190.
Özkiliç, R. (2012). Bullying toward Teachers: An Example from Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 47, 95-112.
Pörhölä, M., Almonkari, M., & Kunttu, K. (2019). Bullying and social anxiety experiences in university learning situations. Social Psychology of Education, 22(3), 723-742.
Rahman, M. M., Islam, M. R., & Kabir, M. Z. (2020). Prevalence of Workplace Bullying in University. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 10(1), 94-106.
Schenk, A. M., & Fremouw, W. J. (2012). Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Journal of school violence, 11(1), 21-37.
Sinkkonen, H. M., Puhakka, H., & Meriläinen, M. (2014). Bullying ata university: students’ experiences of bullying. Studies in Higher Education, 39(1), 153-165.
Skapinakis, P., Bellos, S., Gkatsa, T., Magklara, K., Lewis, G., Araya, R., ... & Mavreas, V. (2011). The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece. BMC psychiatry, 11(1), 22.
Smith, P. K., & Brain, P. (2000). Bullying in schools: Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 26(1), 1-9.
Tabak, F. S., & Köymen, Ü. (2014). Student experiences with cyberbullying in northern Cyprus. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 5200-5209.
The annual bullying survey (2018). The Annual Benchmark Of Bullying In The United Kingdom.
UNESCO, (2019). Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying.
Van der Werf, C. (2014). The effects of bullying on academic achievement. Revista Desarrollo y Sociedad, (74), 275.
Young-Jones, A., Fursa, S., Byrket, J. S., & Sly, J. S. (2015). Bullying affects more than feelings: The long-term implications of victimization on academic motivation in higher education. Social psychology of education, 18(1), 185-200.
Zapf, D. (1999). Organisational, work group related and personal causes of mobbing/bullying at work. International journal of manpower.
ISSN:1429-9321 (1997-2019)