Local Labour Market Outcomes of Educational Migration
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Economics and Management Opole University of Technology
Online publication date: 2023-03-06
Publication date: 2023-03-06
Management 2022;26(2):63–85
Thus far, the majority of studies have focused on international student migration. Less attention has been paid to internal migration for tertiary education and even less to local effects caused by this category of migration. To redress this limitation, the paper determines the most important consequences of internal migration for university enrolment in the local labour market of a university city. This is shown through the example of the Polish university city with one of the highest student-to-population ratios – Opole. The study is based on the literature review and the result of qualitative and quantitative research conducted in Opole. The first was conducted among students and the second among owners and employees of local enterprises. Findings of the research suggest that the inflow of students to the university city can lead to short- run and long-run effects on the local economy. Findings of the research suggest that in the short run the inflow of students to the university city leads to structurally important changes in the labour supply and creates new jobs. In the long run, it leads to permanent changes in labour resources, attracts investors to the city and causes permanent changes in the labour demand. The analysed outcomes of migration for tertiary education are only a small but vital part of the consequences of education migration. The global spread of the coronavirus has also stressed the importance of educational migrants in university cities. The impact of pandemic COVID-19 on university cities should be the subject of future research.
Adamska, M. (2020). Practical application of forms and tools of marketing communication in the SME sector. E a M: Ekonomie a Management, 23(2), 193–209.
Ali, M., Egbetokun, A., & Memon, M. H. (2018). Human capital, social capabilities and economic growth. Economies, 6(1), 1–18. https://doi. org/10.3390/economies6010002.
Bae, J., & Kochin, L. (2018). The Effect of In-migration on Labor Demand from the Fall of Cow to Today. 2003, 1–23. https://t.co/L2L9iSEgrC.
Barron, P., & Anastasiadou, C. (2009). Student part-time employment: Implications, challenges and opportunities for higher education. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(2), 140–153. https://doi.org/10.1108/095961....
Beblavý, M., & Fabo, B. (2015). Students in Work and their Impact on the Labour Market. CEPS Working Documents, 2015(410), 1–29.
Blanton, S. L., & Blanton, R. G. (2006). Human Rights and Foreign Direct Investment. Business & Society, 45(4), 464–485. https://doi.org/10.1177/000765....
Bodvarsson, Örn B., Van den Berg, Hendrik and Joshua J. Lewer. (2008).Measuring immigration’s effects on labor demand: A reexamination of the Mariel Boatlift. Labour Economics, 15 (4), 560–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labe....
Borjas, G. J. (2009). Immigration in High-Skill Labor Markets: The Impact of Foreign Students on the Earnings of Doctorates. In U. of C. Press (Ed.), Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment (pp. 131–162).
Brennan, J., & Cochrane, A. (2019). Oxford Review of Education of, and beyond their cities. https://doi.org/10.10800305498....
Butcher, K. F., & Card, D. (1991). Immigration and wages: evidence from the 1980s. American Economic Review, 81(2), 292–296.
Capello, R, Olechnicka, A., & Gorzelak, G. (2013). Universities, Cities and Regions: Loci for Knowledge and Innovation Creation. Routledge.
Caffrey, J. and Isaacs, H. (1971). Estimation the impact of a college or university on the local economy. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.
Central Statistical Office. (2017a). Koszty pracy w gospodarce narodowej 2016. Central Statistical Office.
Central Statistical Office. (2017b). Wyniki finansowe podmiotów gospodarczych I–XII 2016. Central Statistical Office.
Clarke, A., Ferrer, A., & Skuterud, M. (2018). www.econstor.eu. Journal of Labor Economics, 37, 443–490.
Constant, A. (2014). Do migrants take the jobs of native workers? IZA World of Labor, 5, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.15185/izawo....
Correia, J. S. R., Ferreira, F. A. F., Meidutė-Kavaliauskienė, I., Pereira, L.F., Zopounidis, C. and Correia, R. J. C. (2020). Factors influencing urban investment attractiveness: an FCM-SD approach. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 24(4), 237–250. https://doi.org/10.3846/ijspm.....
Crawford, V.P. (2005). The Flexible-Salary Match: A Proposal to Increase the Salary Flexibility of the National Resident Matching Program”. Journal of Economics Behaviour & Organisation, 66 (2), 149–160.
Devlin, C., Bolt, O., & Patel, D. (2014). Impacts of Migration on UK Native Employment: An Analytical Review of the Evidence. London: BIS.
Curtis, S., Lucas, R. E. (2001). A coincidence of needs? Employers and full-time students. Employee Relations, 23(1), 38–54.
Diebolt, C., & Hippe, R. (2019). The long-run impact of human capital on innovation and economic development in the regions of Europe. In Applied Economics (Vol. 51, Issue 5, pp. 542–563). https://doi.org/10.1080./00036....
Dobbins, M., & Kwiek, M. (2017). Europeanisation and globalisation in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe: 25 years of changes revisited (1990-2015). European Educational Research Journal, 16(5), 519–528. https://doi.org/10.1177/147490....
Dustamn, C. Glitz, A. & Frattini, T. (2008). The labour market impact of immigration. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 24 (3), 477–494.
Farbenblum, B. & Berg, L. (2020). International Students and Wages Theft in Australia. Sydney: University of Technology Sydney.
Fernandes, J., Cunha, J. & Pedro, O. (2013). An alternative to the ACE model to determine Higher Education Institution’s economic impact. Conference paper on EAIR 41st Annual Forum in Leiden.
Ford, J., Bosworth, D. & R. Wilson. (1995). Part-time work and full-time higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 20 (2), 187–202.
Fowler, L., & Fuller, S. (2005). Economic Impact of George Mason University on the Northern Virginia Economy. George Mason University.
Gabriel, P., & Schmitz, S. (1995). Favorable self-selection and the internal migration of young white males in the United States. Journal of Human Resources, 30(3), 460–471.
Gleason, P. M. (1993). College Student Employment, Academic Progress, and Postcollege Labor Market Success. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 23(2).https://doi.org/10.55504/0884-....
Green, A., Atfield, G. & Purcel, K. (2016). Fueling displacement and labour market segmentation in low-skilled jobs? Insight from a local study of migrant and student employment. Environment and Planning A, 45 (3), 577–593.
Heffner, K., Klemens, B., & Solga, B. (2019). Challenges of regional development in the context of population ageing. Analysis based on the example of opolskie voivodeship. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(19). https://doi.org/10.3390/su1119....
Hofman, W. H. A. & Steijn, A.J. (2003). Students or Lower-Skilled Workers? ‘Displacement’ at the Bottom of the Labour Market. Higher Education, 45 (2), 127–146.
Hou, F., & Lu, Y. (2017). International students, immigration and learnings growth: the effect of a pre-immigration host-country university education. IZA Journal of Development and Migration, 7(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40176....
Hsieh, W., & Kohler, M. (2007). Immigration and Labour Supply. subclass 417, 8–13. https://www.rba.gov.au/publica....
Joensen, J. S. S. (2011). Academic and Labor Market Success: The Impact of Student Employment, Abilities, and Preferences. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2007. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1....
Jończy, R., & Rokita-Poskart, D. (2012). Foreign migration of Polish youth in the context of the Polish labour market availability and „overproduction” of graduates of Polish labour market. Actual Problems of Economic, 2(7),195–201.
Korpi, M., & Clark, W. A. W. (2017). Human capital theory and internal migration: Do average outcomes distort our view of migrant motives? Migration Letters, 14(2), 237–250. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v1....
Kubiciel-Lodzinska, S., & Maj, J. (2020). Experience in Employing Immigrants and the Perception of Benefits of a Diverse Workforce. European Research Studies Journal, XXIII (Special Issue 1), 803–818. https://doi.org/10.35808/ersj/....
Kureková, L. M., & Žilinčíková, Z. (2016). Are student jobs flexible jobs? Using online data to study employers’ preferences in Slovakia. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40174....
Layne-Farrar, A. (2017). The economics of FRAND. In The Cambridge Handbook of Antitrust, Intellectual Property, and High Tech (pp. 58–78). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/978131....
Local Data Bank. (n.d.). https://bdl.stat.gov.pl/BDL/da....
Longhi, S., Nijkamp, P. & Poot, J. (2010). Joint impacts of immigration on wages and employment: review and meta-analysis. Journal of Geographic System, 12, 355–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10109....
Ma, J. (2020). High skilled immigration and the market for skilled labor: The role of occupational choice. Labour Economics, 63, 101791. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.LABE....
Maury, O. (2020). Between a Promise and a Salary: Student-Migrant-Workers’ Experiences of Precarious Labour Markets. Work, Employment and Society, 34(5), 809–825. https://doi.org/10.1177/095001....
Mazzolari, F. & Neumark, D. (2009). Beyond wages: the effects of immigration on the scale and composition of output. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Mellors-Bourne, R., Humfrey, C., Kemp, N., Woodfield, S., & Number, P. (2013). The Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the UK. 128, 1–123.
Moretti, E. (2013). The New Geography of Jobs. Mariner Books. Munro, M., Turok, I., & Livingston, M. (2009). Students in cities:.
A preliminary analysis of their patterns and effects. Environment and Planning A, 41(8), 1805–1825. https://doi.org/10.1068/a41133.
Oláh, J., Halasi, G., Szakály, Z., Popp, J., & Balogh, P. (2017). The impact of international migration on the labor market - A case study from Hungary. Amfiteatru Economic, 19(46), 790–805.
Orrenius, P. M., Zavodny, M., & Gullo, S. (2020). How Does Immigration Fit into the Future of the U.S. Labor Market? *. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Working Papers, 2020(2005). https://doi.org/10.24149/wp200....
Perales, F. & Chesters, J. (2017). The returns to mature-age education in Australia. International Journal of Educational Research, 85, 87-98.
Peri, G. (2016). Immigrants, Productivity, and Labor Markets. 30(4), 3–30.
Peri, G., & Yasenov, V. (2021). The Labor Market Effects of a Refugee Wave: Synthetic Control Method Meets the Mariel Boatlift. SSRN Electronic Journal, 10605. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2....
Pusztai, G., & Kocsis, Z. (2019). Combining and balancing work and study on the eastern border of Europe. Social Sciences, 8(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/SOCSCI....
Rokita-Poskart, D. (2016). Educational migration and the labour market. Czech Journal of Social Sciences, Business and Economics, 5(1), 6–17.
Rokita-Poskart, D. (2019). Internal migration for educational purposes in the light of literature and research. In Ł. Skoczylas & E. Smolarkiewicz (Eds.), Internal migrations in Poland (pp. 137–153). Peterlang.
Rosenzweig, M., Irwin, D., & Williamson, J. (2006). Global Wage Differences and International Student Flows [with Comments and Discussion]. Brookings Trade Forum.
Ruhs, M. V.-S. C. (2020). BRIEFING: The Labour Market Effects of Immigration.
Rubery, J. & Grimshaw, D. (2003). The Organisation of Employment: an international perspective. London: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Ryan, J. & Malgieri, P. (1992). Economic Impact Studies in Community Colleges: the Shortcut Method. National Council for Resource Development Resource Paper, 48, 1-27.
Solow, R. (1998). What is Labour-Market Flexibility? What is it Goodfor?. In Proceedings of the British Academy, 97, 189–211.
Steinacker, A. (2005). The Economic Effect of Urban Colleges on their Surrounding Communities. Urban Studies, 42(7), 1161–1175.
Suchacek, J. (2022). Solid as a Rock: Media Portrayals of Cross-Border Activities. Sustainability, 14, 15749. https://doi.org/10.3390/ su142315749.
Sułkowski, Ł., Przytuła, S. & Migdał, A.M. (2020). Skilled Ukrainian migrants in the Polish emerging economy: implications for knowledge management, European Journal of International Management, 14 (5), 796–816.
Sunley, P., Martin, R., Gardiner, B. & Pike, A. (2020). In search of the skilled city: Skills and the occupational evolution of British cities. Urban Studies, 57(1), 109–133. https://doi.org/10.1177/004209....
Szewczuk-Stępień, M., & Klemens, B. (2019). Essence and role of co-operation in regional development. RIS3 case study. Quality - Access to Success, 20, 463–468.
Valero, A., & van Reenen, J. (2019). The economic impact of universities: Evidence from across the globe. Economics of Education Review, 68, 53–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECON....
Weert, E. de. (2011). Perspectives on higher education and the labour market- Review of international policy developments. Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, December.
Wiedermann, K. (2008). Koncepcja efektów mnożnikowych w wyznaczaniu wpływu przedsiębiorstw na otoczenie społeczno-gospodarcze. In Z. Zioło & T. Rachwał (Eds.), Problematyka badawcza geografii przemysłu (pp. 8–106). Akademia Pedagogiczna w Krakowie.
Zasina, J. (2021). The student urban leisure sector: Towards commercial studentification? Local Economy, 36(5), 374–390. https://doi.org/10.1177/026909....
Zubek, R. (2020). Czynniki warunkujące atrakcyjność Opola jako miejsca do rozwoju firm z sektora nowoczesnych usług biznesowych.
Zygmunt, A. (2020). Do Human Resources and the Research System Affect Firms’ Innovation Activities? Results from Poland and the Czech Republic. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(6), 1–14.
Zygmunt, J. (2018). Start-ups survival in a transition economy. Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 1175–1184.
ISSN:1429-9321 (1997-2019)